Here are some solutions to problems Linux users often
encounter. If you have a better solution or have a question please send your solutions,
questions, or comments to us.
Are any of these solutions obsolete? Are they clear and easy to understand?
Linux has been running fine until I installed win 95. Now it will not boot.
1. If you created a boot floppy during the linux installation, put it
in now and reboot your computer. If not, you can create a boot disk.
Using an ftp client log on to sunsite.unc.edu (or your other
favorite archive site) as anonymous with password
firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also use your favorite web browser.
Just put in ftp://sunsite.unc.edu
Look for linux, distributions, then your linux distribution. Now
look for a directory labeled bootdisk, or bootdisk.1.44 Also find
a directory labeled dostools or dosutil. Look for a file called
rawrite.exe, rawrite12.exe, or rawrite13.exe
If you are in DOS, do this
rawrite filename.ext a:
This will put the disk image on to the floppy disk.
If you are in linux, do this
dd if=filename.ext of=/dev/fd0
Now you have a startup disk.
2. Now run Lilo.
Linux has been running fine until I recompiled the kernel. Now it will not boot.
1.Kernel encountered errors and did not finish compiling.
2.You may have the wrong drivers compiled in. For example you may have
compiled the wrong processor type.
3.You may not have configured lilo properly.
1.A. You will have to scroll up and check the errors. Then reconfigure
and recompile your kernel.
2.A. You will have to experiment with different configs. For example if
you set your sound card's IRQ to 5, try setting it to 7, etc...
Change only what needs to be change. When you are running make
config, make menuconfig, or make xconfig, make sure you save your
settings as a file. Copy this file to a floppy. Here is a kernel
config script I wrote. Right click and choose save link as to
download, or just click to view source code.
This script will 1. go to /usr/src/linux/
2. make config OR make menuconfig OR
This will ask you lots of questions about
3. make dep <---- this will make dependencies.
This will take a while
4. make clean
5. make bzImage <---this is the kernel. This
will take a while
on older systems. It took four hours on a
486DX, but only 10 Minutes on pentium II
500MHz or an AMD k6 - 2 500MHz, both with
6. make modules <---depending on how many
modules you make it could take a while.
7. make bzlilo <---This will place your new
kernel where the old one was
lilo will also be run.
Make sure you did not encounter any errors. Now you need to reboot.
3.A. If you did not configure lilo properly, lilo will give you errors.
Here's a breif description of how to make your own /etc/lilo.conf
Let's say you have the following system:
Hard drive: 5GB broken up into 5 partitions
/dev/hda1 = 1GB <--- that's your first partition
/dev/hda2 = 1GB <--- that's your second partition
/dev/hda3 = 1GB
/dev/hda4 = 1GB
/dev/hda5 = 1GB
Red Hat Linux is installed on /dev/hda1
SuSE Linux is installed on /dev/hda4
Windows 95 is installed on /dev/hda5
Let's pretend Redhat is mounted on '/'
SuSE is mounted on /mnt
Windows 95 is not mounted
Let's say you have the following /etc/lilo.conf file:
boot=/dev/hda <----- This is your first physical
vga = normal
prompt <----- This will give the LILO:
timeout=50 <----- This will tell your computer
to wait 5 seconds with the
image = /boot/vmlinuz <--- This is where your linux
kernel is located on
your red hat
is the kernel. You can
name it to helloworld if
root = /dev/hda1 <--- This is the partition
where you installed
label = redhat <--- You can call it whatever
you like, not just red
image = /mnt/boot/vmlinuz <-This is where your SuSE
kernel is right now
because SuSE is mounted
root = /dev/hda4 <-This is the partition
where you installed
label = SuSE <-This is the label for
other = /dev/hda5 <--- This is where you have
table = /dev/hda <--- This is the drive
windows 95 will recognize
label = win95 <--- This is whatever you like
to call windows 95
Boot to DOS from a floppy. Make sure you have a file called fdisk.exe on
it. When you see the command prompt type this:
If you are having trouble with that and you have some other partitioning
program and you don't care what's on your harddrive, then delete all
partitions and recreate some partitions.
If you have two linux distributions installed, then mount the second one
to /mnt or anyother directory.
you have Slackware on /dev/hda1
debian is on /dev/hdb3
Slack is mounted on '/' (or root directory). You will need to mount
/dev/hdb3 somewhere. Mount it to '/here' if you like.
Then edit lilo.conf. To allow the second linux to use its own